Explore Yoga’s Breathing Techniques

Senior woman practicing yoga at home Alternate Nostril Breathing Nadi Shodhana pranayama

There are many ways to control the breath in our yoga practice. I put them into a comprehensive chart to remind you of all the options you have and to help you organize your thoughts. All of yoga’s breathing techniques fit on this chart somewhere. I hope you will use this chart as a reference for your own breathing practice and working with your students.

All of Yoga’s Breathing Techniques in One Chart

Image depicts breath awareness1. BREATH AWARENESS

Breath awareness means paying attention to each individual breath without trying to change anything. You can notice the flow of breath, the expansion of the lungs, the movement of the rib cage and abdomen, sensations in the nose or throat, the movement of the diaphragm, etc.

Examples: Observing the breath without interference, noticing if you breathe through your nose or mouth, which part of the breath is longer, how the breath feels in the body, etc.

Image depicts directing breath.


We cannot literally direct the breath into different body parts. Instead, we move our awareness as if we were breathing into specific body areas. We cannot control the action of the lungs since the lungs do not have muscular tissue, but we can control the movement of the respiratory musculature.

Examples: “Breathe into your upper back” means “Intentionally widen your upper back when you breathe in.”

Image depicts controlling breath flow


We can intentionally control the respiratory musculature to bring a sense of directionality to the flow of breath. For example, we can choose to expand the belly first and then the chest on the inhalation, or we can choose to expand the chest first then the belly.


  • Chest breathing: Intentionally expanding the ribcage on the inhalation for an energizing, uplifting effect.
  • Belly breathing: Intentionally expanding the belly on the inhalation for a grounding effect.
  • Chest-to-belly breathing: Expanding chest then belly on the inhalation for a more balancing effect.
  • “Radiating” breath: Expanding outward from the solar plexus on inhalation and contracting the solar plexus area on exhalation to create a sense of expansion from the center.

Image depicts breath capacity4. INCREASING BREATHING CAPACITY

We can gradually deepen our inhalation and lengthen our exhalation. This helps to improve the tonicity of the diaphragm, maintain lung elasticity and lung compliance, and maintain ribcage mobility and strength of the respiratory muscles that decline with age.

Examples: We can work toward breathing at the rate of about 6-second inhalation and 6-second exhalation first and then lengthen the breath from there.

Image depicts breath ratios


A breathing ratio reflects a relative relationship between four parts of the breath: inhalation, retention, exhalation, and suspension. We can gradually lengthen one or more parts of the breath to increase our breathing capacity and achieve Brhmana (stimulating), Langhana (discharging), or Samana (equalizing) effect.

Examples: 8:4:8:4 ratio means “Inhale for 8 seconds, hold your breath for 4 seconds, exhale for 8 seconds, hold your breath out for 4 seconds.”

  • Inhalation + Retention longer than Exhalation + Suspension = the ratio will likely have Brhmana effect.
  • Inhalation + Retention shorter than Exhalation + Suspension ­= the ratio will likely have the Langhana effect.
  • Inhalation + Retention same length as Exhalation + Suspension ­= the ratio will likely have Samana effect.

6 Image depicts Krama6. KRAMA (SEGMENTED) BREATHING

Krama breath involves breaking the inhalation or exhalation down into two or three parts for the purpose of lengthening the breath. This breathing technique has a very pronounced energetic effect (Brhmana or Langhana).


  • Krama Inhalation: 3-part inhalation with pauses in between; exhalation is long and flowing (Brhmana effect).
  • Krama Exhale: 3-part exhalation with pauses in between; inhalation is long and flowing (Langhana effect).

Image depicts Nostril breathing


Nostril breathing means breathing through one nostril or the other, depending on the effect you are after. Breathing in through the right nostril will have heating quality, breathing in through the left nostril will have cooling quality, and breathing out through the nostril will sedate the corresponding channel. We can do this in a variety of patterns.


  • Suryabhedana: Inhale through the right nostril and exhale through the left nostril (Heating effect).
  • Chandrabhedana: Inhale through the left nostril and exhale through the right nostril (Cooling effect).
  • Nadi Shodhana: Inhale through the left nostril, exhale­ through the right nostril; inhale through the right nostril, exhale through the left nostril (Balancing, focusing effect).
  • Viloma Ujjayi: Inhale through alternate nostrils and exhale using Ujjayi breath (Brhmana effect).
  • Anuloma Ujjayi: Inhale using Ujjayi breath and exhale through alternate nostrils (Langhana effect).
  • Pratiloma Ujjayi: Inhale using Ujjayi breath, exhale through the left nostril; inhale through the left nostril, exhale using Ujjayi breath. Inhale using Ujjayi breath, exhale through the right nostril; inhale through the right nostril, exhale using Ujjayi breath (Balancing, focusing effect).

Image depicts Valve breathing


Valved breathing means breathing through a valve that we form in the throat (Ujjayi breath) or mouth (Shitali, Sitkari). This adds a vibrational quality to the breath (Ujjayi) and can be used to heat or cool the system and lengthen the breath.


  • Ujjayi: Slightly constrict the opening of the throat to create some resistance to the passage of air. Breathe in and out through the nose with this slight restriction in the throat. Aim for a soft and soothing sound (useful for lengthening the breath and soothing the system).
  • Shitali: Start with your chin down, tongue curled, and fully extended. On the inhalation, seep the air in, raising the chin to just beyond level. First, fold the tongue back and drop the chin, then exhale through alternate nostrils (Soothing, cooling effect).
  • Sitkari: Start with your chin down, the tip of the tongue on the back of the front teeth. On the inhalation, draw the air in between the tongue and the palate. Drop the head, fold the tongue back on itself, then exhale through alternate nostrils (Cooling, relaxing effect).

Image depicts vocal breathing


Vocal breathing creates both sound and vibration. Humming has been shown to increase nitric oxide production in the nose, alleviate chronic inflammation and sinus infection, and lead to parasympathetic (“rest-and-digest”) predominance. Working with sound affects the system energetically. We can change the volume and pitch of the sound to produce a more soothing or stimulating effect.


Bhramari (“bee breath”): Inhale smoothly, on the exhalation, make a low-pitch or medium-pitch humming sound for as long as it’s comfortable. The low pitch has a calming, focusing effect that helps to process mental chatter. You can use a higher pitch or increase volume for a more stimulating effect. It works well to go from loud to quiet or from high pitch to low pitch for a more grounding effect.


Breathing practices like Kapalbhati and Bhastrika involve rapid, vigorous breaths. Therefore, they are considered cleansing practices rather than pranayama. Both techniques are facilitated by repeated lower abdominal contraction and are usually done in a seated position.


  • Kapalbhati (“Skull shining”): Inhale rapidly, relaxing the abdomen. On the exhalation, rapidly and vigorously contract the abdomen, forcing the air out through both nostrils.
  • Bhastrika (“Bellows breath”): Inhale rapidly through the left nostril. On the exhale, vigorously contract the abdomen and force the air out through the left nostril. Continue alternating sides.

Both practices have a heating effect. They can help increase control over your abdominal musculature, clear your sinuses, potentially increase your metabolic rate, and facilitate a particular mental state.

Yoga’s Breathing Techniques: So Many Possibilities

When we begin to work with breathing techniques, getting lost in the sea of possibilities is easy. There is such a buffet of different breathing techniques that it might be tempting to try a little bit of everything.

There is some value in experimentation, but consistency is the main point when working with the breath. So it is best to start with the basics and get a firm grasp of those. Then, you can choose a ratio or technique that can be useful for your current situation and/or condition and stick with it for a while.

Work with it for some time, and make sure that the rest of your yoga practice supports it. The full potential of breathing techniques and their lasting effects usually begin to appear after weeks or months of practice.

Reprinted with permission from Sequence Wiz.
Olga Kabel

Educated as a school teacher, Olga Kabel has been teaching yoga for over 14 years. She completed multiple Yoga Teacher Training Programs but discovered the strongest connection to the Krishnamacharya/ T.K.V. Desikachar lineage. She had studied with Gary Kraftsow and American Viniyoga Institute (2004-2006) and received her Viniyoga Teacher diploma in July 2006, becoming an AVI-certified Yoga Therapist in April 2011. Olga is a founder and managing director of Sequence Wiz— a web-based yoga sequence builder that assists yoga teachers and yoga therapists in creating and organizing yoga practices. It also features simple, informational articles on how to sequence yoga practices for maximum effectiveness. Olga strongly believes in the healing power of this ancient discipline on every level: physical, psychological, and spiritual. She strives to make yoga practices accessible to students of any age, physical ability, and medical history, specializing in helping her students relieve muscle aches and pains, manage stress and anxiety, and develop mental focus.

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